Upon Barsoom, most nations organize their armies into a similar structure. It is noted that the green martians military organization is not carried out to the same detail and perfection as the military's of the Red Peoples!
The armies of Barsoom have ground forces and fleets of airships, but there are no noted division between rank and titles between ground and naval personnel. If there where are any markings or decorations to distinguish a sailor, a foot solider or a cavalryman of any given rank, then it was unstated in the books.
Panthan are much like Than (see below), but are mercenary troops. They are considered more expendable than Than troops, and are seen as a lesser rank. They are noted to have one feather on their headdresses.
The title given to any rank-and-file Martian soldier or sailor. It is essentially equivalent to the rank of private or seaman. The number of feathers they have on their headdresses is not stated, but it can be assumed to be either one or two.
The Martian equivalent to the rank of lieutenant, and is the lowest rank of authority. There are always several Padwar within an utan. Although unconfirmed, they probably have command of a squad of ten troops, or a team of small, one- or two-person fliers. They are noted to have two feathers on their headdresses.
The rank above Padwar, a Dwar is the Martian equivalent to the rank of an army captain or naval commander, and commands an Utan, a unit of 100 men or a small escort ship if naval. They always have two Padwar under their command. They are noted to have three feathers on their headdresses.
The rank above Dwar, a Teedwar is the Martian equivalent to the rank of major or naval captain, and commands a Dar, a unit of 1,000 men or a large warship with escorts if naval. It is assumed that they sport four feathers on their headdresses.
The rank above Teedwar, an Odwar is the Martian equivalent to the rank of general or admiral. Each commands an Umak, a unit of 10,000 soldiers, or if naval, an entire fleet, commanding from a battleship. They are noted to have five feathers on their headdresses.
Jedwar is the highest military rank on Barsoom, subordinate only to Jed, Jeddak and Warlord (a special title granted to and created for John Carter by the leaders of five empires). This rank is basically the supreme commander of all ground and naval forces. The details of their battle dress go unstated.
There are three known military units, the Utan, the Dar, and the Umak.
Utan is the principal, if not the smallest, unit of military organization, composed of 100 soldiers. Each is commanded by a Dwar, with a command staff of Padwar officers.
A Dar is composed of 10 Utan for a total of 1,000 soldiers, and is commanded by a Teedwar, with a command staff of Dwar officers.
A Umak consists of 10 Dar for a total of ten thousand soldiers, and is commanded by an Odwar, with a command staff of Teedwar officers.